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Kris Kline
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Kris Kline



Alexander, NC




1. Courtroom preparation and testimony.  Courtroom testimony is one of the most difficult responsibilities that a professional surveyor can assume. The student will follow the entire process from the initial client contact to the courtroom. Methods of collecting, preserving, and presenting evidence will be discussed, along with depositions and preparation for testimony. Courtroom demeanor and presentation skills will be addressed, along with tips for enhancing your professional appearance and danger signs to watch for in cross-examination. Aspects of concise communications with your client and attorney, opposing attorneys, and with the judge and jury will be discussed. This course may also include case studies from the jurisdiction where the class is held. (half day or full-day)


2. Courtroom Preparation and Testimony – Keeping the Cooley Spirit Alive This is a full-day expanded version of the half-day Courtroom Preparation class listed above, interspersed with many of the significant rulings from Justice Thomas Cooley.

3. Know When to hold 'em and other procedural pitfalls. At the core of our profession is the boundary monument, and most of our boundary retracement decisions revolve around the choice to hold an existing monument, set a new monument, or choose between multiple existing monuments. Part one of this seminar is an in-depth discussion of principles  that form the basis of the critical decision that we make every day, including the rules of construction, sufficiency of research, and tips for the analysis  for several types of property corners. (Note: part 1 may be presented as a half day seminar).  Part two of this seminar will concentrate on adverse possession, prescriptive easements, and quasi easements. (state specific) This is a general overview of several different principles. Knowledge of these topics will help the surveyor to improve his research and location techniques (both office and field) so as to better serve the client in cases where disputes may arise. State specific case law will be cited where appropriate. (8 hours).
4. Ethics, Professionalism and the Courts. This ethics course focuses on professional behavior from the perspective of court decisions. The class includes real-life examples where surveyor’s behavior has been analyzed and critiqued by judges across the country. It also includes relevant segments from local standards of practice and codes of ethics. (4 hours)

5. What Did You Really Mean? – The Intent of the Parties. The concept of the Intent of the Parties is central to many of our boundary retracement decisions. Not only is this concept prominent in easement law and deed interpretation, but it also occurs when dealing with Wills, Color of Title issues, quasi easements, and Adverse Possession. This seminar includes: Intent of the Parties and the significance of surrounding circumstances, Intent as it affects deed interpretation, Common-Law Dedication and Acceptance of Easements, Color of Title, and Intent as it relates to Adverse Possession. (8 hours)

6. How to Fix a Boundary Line (and how NOT to). This course examines various legal mechanisms which courts apply in order to fix the location of a disputed or uncertain boundary line or easement. Topics include: Adverse Possession, Boundary by Estoppel, Conditional and Consentable Boundary Lines, Practical Location, and Parol vs. written agreements. A segment on the doctrine of Merger is also included. (8 hours)

7. Property Rights on the “Z” axis. This course considers underground trespass and the interaction of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing with property boundaries. It also includes discussion of easements associated with mining interests and other horizontal estates in land. *** Several cases will consider the vertical extent of property ownership and associated easements. *** Additional topics include problems associated with surface flow of water and the effect of the common enemy doctrine, civil law rule, and the reasonable use doctrine on property rights. *** A discussion of Railroad easements and rights of way includes hands-on problems for the student and demonstrates how the courts determine ownership of the railroad corridor.  (8 hours)

8. Colonial State Exam Review: Boundary Retracement Principles. This class is designed to review basic principles of boundary retracement including: Rules of Construction, Junior-Senior title, Sufficiency of research, proportioning, Simultaneous vs. Sequential Conveyance, and creation, scope, and reversion of Easements. Also included are basics of Adverse possession (not state specific) (minimum 4 hours - maximum 8 hours)

9. Whatever Floats Your Boat – Riparian Boundaries. Waterways are some of the oldest transportation corridors in our country. This class focuses on the evolution of the many definitions of "Navigable Waterways" with relevant state-specific case law and statutes. Significant U.S. Supreme Court rulings from early formative decisions to the present day will be considered. Ownership of the fee, Rights of Navigation and interpretation of riparian descriptions will be discussed. This class also includes discussion of accretion and erosion, and considers various regulatory issues, including U.S.A.C.E. definitions. (8 hours) Note: this course must be completely rebuilt for each jurisdiction. As a result, cost for this class is 2000.00 for all contracts.

10. Adverse Possession Like You’ve Never Seen It - State specific discussion of Adverse Possession and Prescriptive Easements, with relevant local case law. Specific topics include: Tacking; Claims against the state; Claims made under mistaken belief; Effects of ordinances on adverse claims; Effects of a survey on a prescriptive claim; Neighborly Accommodation. (4 hours)

11. Prescriptive Easements Like You’ve Never Seen Them – while the basic concepts behind prescriptive easements are widely recognized, many developments in this area of the law are fairly recent. The course begins with the development of the Lost Grant Theory and its relationship to prescriptive rights in the United States. The various elements required for the creation of a prescriptive easement are discussed in detail. Tacking and claims by (and against) the state are considered, along with the scope & location of the resulting easement. This class also goes into court rulings for prescriptive easements associated with: Parking Areas; Subterranean and Visible Utility Easements; Light and Air; Trees and Shrubbery. (4 hours)


Kristopher M. Kline, president of 2Point, Inc., has a four-year degree (class of '84) in General Science from Bridgewater College located in Bridgewater, Va. He has been involved in the surveying profession since graduation. 
Kris became licensed in North Carolina in1991 (P.L.S. L - 3374). He is a 1999 graduate of the North Carolina Society of Surveyors (N.C.S.S.) Institute, a three-year continuing education program that for many years drew national attention for the quality of its curriculum and instructors. Kris served for 3 years as Chairman of the N.C.S.S. Education Committee.
In 2001, Kris began offering continuing education courses in North Carolina on legal aspects of retracement. More recently, his teaching career has expanded to include conferences and seminars nationwide. Course offerings now include a broad range of topics, including adverse possession & other unwritten rights, riparian law, mineral rights and courtroom preparation. Customized courses tailored to the jurisdiction in which they are presented enhance their value to the professional. Kris has presented several keynote addresses for state conventions.
In 2011, he established “Unmistakable Marks,” a new column published in “Point of Beginning” a trade magazine for surveying professionals. Kris presently submits bi-monthly articles for the magazine, with over 30 articles published to date. These articles are written for a national audience and generally focus on various legal aspects of boundary retracement.
In August 2013, Kris published his first book “Rooted in Stone: the Development of Adverse Possession in 20 Eastern States and the District of Columbia.” This text considers adverse possession and prescriptive easements from their early origins to the present day. Separate chapters are dedicated to variations between jurisdictions in the eastern United States.
His second book, “Riparian Boundaries and Rights of Navigation” includes extensive discussion of the many definitions of the term “navigable.” This short volume was completed in 2015 and focuses on property rights along smaller rivers, streams, lakes and estuaries. It considers the inevitable confusion that results when modern definitions are applied to early grants and the effects of subsequent legislation on riparian rights.
Kline’s third book is scheduled for release in late 2016. “How to Fix a Boundary Line” chronicles variations in the legal mechanisms related to unwritten property rights across the United States. Topics include acquiescence, part performance of oral contracts, adverse possession, estoppel and the doctrine of merger.     


NSPS strives to establish and further common interests, objectives, and political effort that would help bind the surveying profession into a unified body in the United States.

Governance: The National Society of Professional Surveyors Inc. is governed by a Board of Directors. The NSPS Board of Directors meets twice per year.   NSPS has working agreements with state surveying organizations which are represented on the NSPS Board of Directors, and with the NSPS Foundation, Inc. 

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